Functionality

The invention encompasses the intersection of roads arrayed in three, four or five different directions through the use of overpasses or tunnels on two levels. The overpasses or tunnels can be symmetrically raised or lowered in relation to the elevation of the intersecting roadways. In specific instances, the overpasses can be raised completely, while the elevation of the tunnels and intersecting roadways can correspond to that of the road. In other cases the tunnels can be built deeply underground, while the elevation of the overpasses and intersecting roadways can be uniform.

The invention relates to junctions of intersecting roads of equivalent or different categories and is equally applicable to urban or rural roads, regardless of direction of traffic (left-hand vs. right-hand).

The invention’s functions are not limited to the formation of superior traffic conditions alone. The road junction is designed to allow entry into the center area of the interchange, to turn around and exit in any desired direction. The area in the center of the junction becomes free for infrastructure and property development. This attribute can be of advantage to create conditions for the rational distribution of traffic flows and the optimization of passenger and transport flows on highways and other major arteries by building the junction and other necessary infrastructure at the intersection of metropolitan highways.

In conditions where highway speeds are not restricted (i.e. Germany and locations with other applicable legal restrictions), a special PINAVIA design can be applied, which allows left-hand turns from the rightmost lane.

In those cases where municipal territories have no land to expand road interchanges, the PINAVIA can encompass whole city blocks in which traffic management principles are applied to highways and main arteries, while elements of the PINAVIA are utilized at intersections.